Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology

The purpose of an RFID system is to enable data to be transmitted by a portable device, called a tag, which is read by an RFID reader and processed according to the needs of a particular application. The data transmitted by the tag may provide identification or location information, or specifics about the product tagged, such as price, colour, date of purchase, and etc. The use of RFID in tracking and access applications first appeared during the 1980’s RFID quickly gained attention because of its ability to track moving objects. As the technology is reined, more pervasive and invasive uses for the RFID tags are in the works. In a typical RFID system, individual objects are equipped with a small inexpensive tag. The tag contains a transponder with a digital memory chip that is given a unique electronic product code. The interrogator, an antenna packaged with a transceiver and decoder, emits a signal activating the RFID tag so it can read and write data to it. Then an RFID tag passes through the electromagnetic zone. It detects the reader’s activation signal. The reader decodes the data7 encoded in the tag’s integrated circuit (silicon chip) and the data is passed to the host computer for processing.

Biometric: Fingerprint Based System

A biometric system comprises a reader, which reads a biometric characteristic (such as the pattern of papillary ridges of a finger) into a computer, and a matching algorithm that compares the obtained data with the similar data stored in the computer’s database. As a rule, the computer’s database stores not the biometric characteristic itself, but a certain digital code (sometimes called “passport” or “template”) that is calculated based on the characteristic it represents. The process of calculating this code is called digitalization and the process of6 comparing the data is called matching. Reliability of a biometric system depends on the three factors: -

  • Uniqueness and repeatability, which mean that the characteristic used should provide for different readings for different people, and the readings obtained for the same person at different times and under different conditions should be similar.
  • Reliability of the matching algorithm.
  • Quality of the reading device.
Iris patterns or patterns produced by papillary ridges of a finger are less prone to change than other biometric characteristics, and therefore the systems based on these characteristics are significantly more reliable. Biometric characteristics currently in use are:-

  • Shape of the hand.
  • Features of the face.
  • Shape of the cranium.
  • Thermogram of blood vessels of the face.
  • Thermogram of blood vessels of the palm.
  • Voice.
  • Signature.
  • Handwriting.
  • Iris.
  • Pattern of the papillary ridges of a finger.
  • Pattern of the papillary ridges of the palm.